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With all of the dramatic changes in media, technology, and buyer behavior that we have witnessed in recent decades, CMOs should devote a lot of time to rethinking the optimal structure for their department. Should their team be organized around functions, geographies, customer segments, or something else entirely? How well is their team aligned with the business, and is the team adaptive to changes in the market? Which functions are essential to the success of the marketing effort? Finally, which key activities need to be performed internally, and which can be outsourced?
Marketing is changing. Customers are able to find more information online than ever before. Consequently, B2B marketers are more involved in the later stages of the buyer journey, staying involved longer than they have ever been, assuming responsibilities that historically belonged to Sales. Marketing automation is changing the way marketing operates, enabling company executives to track marketing’s performance against the company’s goals on a daily basis. Analytics – an area most marketers traditionally stayed away from (run away from?) – is becoming more and more important, both because analyzing user behavior online is yielding new insights, and because CEOs are examining ROMI more carefully. The digitization of marketing in fact presents opportunities for CMOs to strengthen their ties to the business; to assume additional responsibilities, with the concomitant higher budgets; and even to increase their compensation by being paid “upside” based on contribution to the sales pipeline.
This chapter will start with considerations for aligning marketing with the business. It will then shift its focus to the basic roles and responsibilities of the marketing department, as well as some common alternatives to evaluate. It will conclude with recommendations on how Marketing can work effectively with other parts of the organization.
The Marketing Department in the and Overall Organization
Before exploring the marketing department and the staff, understanding the specific role of Marketing within a given organization is critical. An obvious place to begin is by determining how many of the Four Ps Marketing is responsible for covering.
How Many Ps?
In Chapter 1 we identified McCarthy’s Four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Depending on the organization, Marketing can be responsible for some or all of these functions. Managing promotion is a universal marketing role. But, is Marketing also responsible for product? How about distribution strategy (place)? Does it own or influence pricing?
It is not uncommon for a marketing department to be responsible only for promotion. In fact, this is what many people expect marketing to do. If product management — also known as brand management in consumer packaged goods companies like Procter & Gamble — is part of Marketing, then the department probably will be responsible for product and price. Place is determined by go-to-market strategy – which may be owned by product marketing – and by the channel or partner strategy. In situations where Sales owns the channel or partner strategy, Marketing may be responsible only for the channel program, channel enablement, and channel promotion.
Whatever the organization, understanding which of the Four Ps Marketing is responsible for will define the skills that the marketing staff must possess. In some cases a head of marketing will use the Four Ps to expand the scope of marketing or to better align it with the needs of the market. A CMO should not take the attitude that Marketing “gets what it gets”; rather, he or she should press the issue and consider how changes in technology, media, and customer behavior present opportunities for Marketing to do more.
Match the Mandate
Regardless of whether your CEO is open to a discussion on the Four Ps — or even knows them, which can be a problem — a VP of Marketing or a CMO needs to understand Marketing’s mandate. The fundamental rule here is to build your marketing department to match your CEO’s or Board’s business goals. This is so obvious we almost didn’t include it in this chapter. Having seen it bite several CMOs we know, however, we decided to put it in.
We call this strategy “matching the mandate.” As an example of matching the mandate, if your CEO cares exclusively about demand generation, then put your best people there, and make certain it has sufficient staff and budget. Dial back on PR or social media if the executive team is not impressed by your share of voice numbers. Although it may pain you to starve one function or the other – after all, you appreciate the importance of a balanced marketing mix – refusing to take these steps can damage your department’s reputation and even limit your longevity in the job.
Be careful not to sound pedantic in your efforts to educate your peers on the importance of brand affinity, social sentiment, or any other inside-baseball marketing jargon that will make you appear to be out of touch with your organization’s real needs. In addition, make certain you probe your CEO or board to identify goals or needs that may not be written down in the annual business plan. A vital point here is that CMOs are frequently assessed by unwritten criteria. For example, a VP of Marketing I know was let go even though he had achieved all of his written objectives, because the CEO just didn’t feel that the brand had grown sufficiently on his watch. In his book The CMO Manifesto, John Ellett stresses the importance of understanding expectations early on. He contends CMOs in new roles should begin during the interview process, and early on in their first 100 days should have a clear and agreed-to mandate.
The moral of this story? Simply put, understanding what your executives really want can be vital to performing — and preserving — your job.
Marketing Functions and Groups
There are many ways to design a marketing department. The design will reflect the responsibilities (P’s) from above, Marketing’s mandate and goals, as well as the industry and the overall size of the organization. We’ve organized this section to cover common functions, functional responsibilities, and the typical group name applied to the function. In general, groups in smaller organizations perform multiple functions, whereas those in larger organizations are more specialized.
For the sake of clarity, the word “organization” will refer to an overall business, government or nonprofit entity. A “department” is the highest-level functional separation inside an organization – Marketing, Sales, Manufacturing, HR, etc. A “group” is the functional separation within a department.
Groups Common to Most Marketing Departments
Let’s begin by examining marketing groups that are found in most marketing departments, regardless of organization size. Specifically, let’s discuss field marketing, regional marketing, marketing communications, product marketing, and — where relevant— channel marketing.
Field Marketing is responsible for demand generation and customer engagement at the regional level. It employs such tactics as running events, supporting user groups (for tech), and coordinating promotions with the field sales group. Some field marketing groups also support the channel, or at least serves as the local arm of the channel team, if the organization does not have a dedicated channel marketing group. In larger organizations, field marketing groups function as the local ambassadors of an organization’s brand and reputation.
Regional Marketing is the marketing arm for an organization in a geographic region. Regional Marketing assumes some of Marketing Communication’s responsibilities for MarCom in the region, including producing marketing collateral in local languages, refining graphics and messages to suit regional tastes, and running regional public relations. Regional Marketing may also inherit some of Channel Marketing responsibilities for partners within a region, such as localizing channel collateral and managing partner marketing funds.
Marketing Communications, commonly abbreviated as “MarCom,” is something of a catch-all group. MarCom’s responsibilities include all of Marketing’s design, promotion and communication functions. In addition, it is responsible for advertising, demand generation, direct marketing, graphic design, identity, public relations, and Web design and management. As the organization expands, MarCom’s functions are usually transferred to specialized groups such as Corporate Communications and Brand Management.
Product Marketing is responsible for the “outbound” marketing of a company’s products (as opposed to the “inbound” activities of the product management function), including identifying buyer personas, creating product messaging, creating content for marketing assets, designing sales tools, overseeing product launches, briefing the media and relevant analysts, and training salespeople. It can also be responsible for monitoring the market for the company. In this capacity it manages competitive intelligence, and it creates market requirements documents, which convey a high-level profile of the current state of the market and customer needs. The division of responsibilities between product marketing and product management varies from organization to organization.
Finally, Channel Marketing is responsible for creating and maintaining the partner program. The term partner is a broad one that encompasses value-added resellers, OEM partners, consultants, affiliates, and any other individuals or groups who participate in the marketing effort. Channel Marketing’s is responsible for managing the partner portal, creating to-channel and tailoring-through-channel assets, running channel promotions, coordinating channel training, and managing partner marketing funds. In some companies, independent of the size of the organization, channel marketing exists within the channel sales organization.
Groups Common in Larger Organizations
As organizations expand, roles become more specialized. The actual functions are the same as in smaller organizations. However, functions that are managed collectively by a single group in a smaller organization are typically dispersed among multiple groups in larger organizations. To cite one common example, larger organizations frequently establish separate groups for Branding and Advertising, Corporate Marketing, and Online Marketing. In contrast, a smaller company might consolidate all of these functions within the MarCom groups. Let’s take a closer look at some specialized group that are common within larger organizations. We begin with Branding and Advertising.
As the name suggests, Branding and Advertising manages the company brand image by creating brand guidelines, maintaining style and usage regulations, initiating brand-building activities, conceiving and delivering advertising, and “policing” the use of the brand by other marketing functions. Branding and Advertising can report either to a VP of MarCom or the VP of Marketing.
Whereas Branding and Advertising maintains the company brand, Brand Management is responsible for planning, developing, and directing the marketing efforts for a particular brand or product. Found primarily in consumer packaged goods (CPG) companies, where products are their own ‘brands,’ brand managers are responsible for coordinating activities of production, sales, advertising, promotion, research and development, marketing research, purchasing, distribution, package development, and finance.
Corporate Communications is responsible for public relations, analyst relations, and influencer relations in general. In some organizations it oversees email and other written communications sent to existing customers. Finally, depending on the company, Corporate Communications may be in charge of creating content for and tracking the use of social media.
Corporate Marketing is something of a catchall group that supervises branding, advertising, marketing communications, and digital marketing for a corporation, unless the CMO has established separate groups, such as Branding and Advertising and Corporate Communications, dedicated to those functions. Regional Marketing and Field Marketing usually take materials created by Corporate Marketing and adapt them to suit their needs.
Companies that rely on renewals or increasing share of wallet to grow their revenue frequently have dedicated Customer Marketing groups. These teams are responsible for creating and maintaining customer loyalty programs, measuring customer satisfaction, overseeing user group relations, and creating campaigns designed to incent renewals or expanded purchase.
As we mentioned in Chapter 7 on social media and word of mouth, having your customers sell for you is frequently the most effective sales strategy. To cultivate this type of customer support, many companies create Customer Advocacy groups. These groups write case studies, record customer testimonials, arrange for customers to speak at industry events, set up customer roundtables and user group meetings, and, in some cases, establish online communities or peer networking groups where customers can interact with one another.
Digital or Online Marketing is one of the most recent additions to the marketing family. As its name implies, it is primarily responsible for executing marketing programs that involve digital media, including Web design, video production, and online strategy. Direct Marketing typically takes over management of an organization’s Web properties from the MarCom team. In addition, it can collaborate with Corporate Communications to manage aspects of the social media program, such as maintaining forums, overseeing the blogging platform, and managing the organization’s presence on social media sites such as Facebook. In a world where everything is going digital and brochures increasingly are downloaded but not printed, careful oversight of digital marketing may be necessary to avoid conflict between it and groups like MarCom or Corporate Communications. In essence, Direct Marketing should function as a service organization that assists in production of digital assets and promotes best practices throughout the marketing team.
Marketing Operations is responsible for increasing the overall efficiency of Marketing by measuring performance, facilitating strategic planning, driving budget planning and spend reporting, developing marketing processes, and managing marketing systems. In some organizations they also own and maintain the marketing databases. Marketing Operations typically reports to the head of marketing, and they may act as a chief of staff to that individual, even driving department communications.
Finally, Vertical or Solution Marketing creates training, enablement, and customer-facing assets around a particular industry or solution area. Vertical Marketing is typically associated with large industries that have unique requirements, such as government, healthcare, financial services, and telecommunications. This function can be located within Product Marketing, or it can be part of a Field Marketing team that specializes in the industry in question. The latter arrangement is especially common if the industry has a regional concentration, such as the U.S. Government.
Groups that May Be Found in Marketing
There are a handful of functions that sometimes reside in the marketing department, and sometimes reside in other departments, regardless of the organization’s size. The reasons vary, but are mostly due to the preferences of the executive team.
Product Management defines and oversees the lifecycle of a product. Product management is a common groups in computer hardware, software, online services, pharmaceutical and aerospace industries. The group’s responsibilities include analyzing the market, understanding the competition, collecting and prioritizing product requirements from customers, creating product requirement documents (PRDs), collaborating with engineering or manufacturing to develop products to spec, setting or recommending product pricing, and maintaining the product roadmap. In smaller organizations, product managers may also take on the outbound activities described above for Product Marketing. Product managers may report to Engineering or Manufacturing, to a VP of Products, or to the VP of Marketing, depending on the organization.
The eCommerce group sells a company’s products online. Their duties include managing the company’s online store(s), creating and managing online advertising to attract customers to the store, and managing relationships with DMRs and eTailers who sell the company’s products on their online stores. Depending on the company, its scale of operation, and the type of product, this group may report to Sales or Marketing, or it may be its own business unit.
Some companies rely on a small team of evangelists to spread the word about their products or company. Evangelists are usually charismatic types who possess detailed product knowledge. They rack up huge amounts of frequent flyer miles attending conferences, meeting users, and speaking at trade shows. An evangelist team may report to the CEO in smaller organizations, the chief technical officer (CTO) in high-tech companies, or to Marketing.
Finally, Telemarketing follows up on direct mail or inbound inquiries, in addition to directly calling prospects to spark some interest. This team may also be called “telesales” or “sales development,” and they are sometimes situated within the sales department. Many companies, however, outsource telemarketing to an agency. When Telemarketing is owned by marketing, it prequalifies leads before handing them over to Sales as MQLs, thus improving the chances of lead acceptance.
Marketing is changing. Much of the change is due to technical advances that allow the marketing department to have a more direct relationship with prospective customers, on the Web or via their mobile device. Below are two groups that have begun to emerge in marketing departments.
Customers today progress further in the buying cycle before they involve a salesperson than ever before. Prior to making contact with Sales, they rely on written and recorded information to conduct online research and compare products. The result is the emergence of the Content Marketing function. Content marketers are usually found within Product Marketing or on the PR team. The latter arrangement requires the PR team to shift its focus from running briefings and writing abstracts to creating content that will stand on its own. To successfully navigate this transition, PR teams need to be bolstered by including professionals who formerly worked as reporters or writers, contract writers, and product marketers.
Some companies have a separate Demand Generation group. This team typically manages the marketing automation system and sends out direct mail. In some companies it also is in charge of SEM. In some cases it controls the marketing database and it manages telemarketing or sales development reps who follow up on direct mail and inbound inquiries before passing them on to Sales. There is a trend toward calling this department “Revenue Marketing,” though most marketers don’t appreciate the damning insinuation that the rest of Marketing is not contributing to revenue.
Finally, more and more companies are setting up centers of excellence around marketing activities that cut across marketing groups. A marketing center of excellence brings together varied people and skills, promotes collaboration and establishes best practices. Social media expertise, for example, may exist within the PR team, the product marketing team, the Web team, the customer advocacy group, and even within the engineering and technical teams. Three of the more common marketing centers of excellence are mobile marketing, social media, and search engine marketing.
Outsourcing: Agencies, Contractors, and Vendors
We have just considered a number of marketing functions that large organizations frequently assign to specialized groups. Alternatively, many organizations outsource these functions to specialized agencies, especially when resources are limited and need for agility is high. The most commonly outsourced activities are public relations and advertising, though there are others. Companies use outside agencies to take advantage of their relationships, creative talent, and specialized skill sets, or to satisfy intermittent needs that do not justify hiring full-time employees. Significantly, companies are increasingly engaging smaller, specialized agencies, rather than a single creative or marketing agency, to handle their needs because they get the skills they need without the often high markup of larger agencies. This trend is especially evident in technical and rapidly evolving areas such as search engine marketing and social media. Here we consider some common agencies that Marketing utilizes.
- Public Relations – As we discussed in Chapter 5, PR agencies specialize in getting companies in front of the media (and hopefully into it) and other influencers, such as bloggers. They are valuable because they maintain close relationships with the media and they have extensive experience in pitching stories. Depending on how much you pay your agency, they might also provide strategic advice on how to position your company, monitor social media monitoring, and ghostwrite blogs or bylined articles. PR agencies like to work on retainer – typically $5,000 to $25,000 per month, although much higher for larger organizations. We have seen CEOs and finance folks balk at the price, but the agency’s relationships and expertise are worth the cost.
- Advertising – The most basic reason to hire an ad agency is that most companies simply don’t produce good advertising internally. This is certainly the case with television ads. The creative thinking, copywriting, and production and placement experience of an ad agency are not cheap, but neither is advertising. Ad agencies are paid for their creative work – either on a project basis or a monthly retainer – any they may earn commissions on advertising placements.
- Media Buyers – Media buyers are responsible for purchasing advertising time and space. Organizations engage media buyers to obtain better rates and placement than they could get themselves. Media buyers can also identify opportunities your marketing team may not be aware of. Traditionally, buyers worked for advertising agencies, but the consolidation of the advertising industry in the late 1990s, coupled with the emergence of online advertising, spurred the creation of independent media buying agencies.
- Branding and Identity – There are times when organizations need help with branding – how they present themselves to the outside world. There may also be occasions when a new product requires just the right name or the company is changing its name. This is the time to bring in a specialist. It’s amazing how hard it is to think of a good name that works around the world and isn’t already taken. Branding and identity agencies typically work on a project basis.
- Graphic Design – Depending on your company size, you may or may not have a graphic design person or team in house. Even if you do, you may want a stable of outside designers whom you call on either to enhance your team’s skill set or to perform certain types of design work – print versus online; corporate versus hip; presentation versus data sheet; to name just a few. Graphic designers work on a project basis, sometimes hourly.
- Writing – Organizations frequently outsource the writing of certain content — for example, white papers or placed articles — to experts. For example, technology companies frequently employ technical writers to make their manuals and other customer-facing documentation more understandable to the layperson. These writers tend to be individual contractors rather than agencies, and they generally work on a project basis. We recommend a good mix of internal writers in a Product Marketing or Content Marketing team, augmented as needed with outside professionals.
There are even more specialized types of agencies you may run across: agencies that create names but don’t design logos. Vendors who create and manage loyalty programs for channel partners. Agencies that specialize in list acquisition. PR agencies that specialize in social media. To decide whether the company should perform the function internally or via an agency, a CMO needs to consider the following factors:
- Does the talent exist internally?
- Should the function be a core competency?
- Does it make more economic sense to outsource the function?
Finally, marketing departments are most effective when they treat agencies and vendors as a part of the team. Sharing strategy with them, involving them in team meetings, and even ensuring they are invited to the holiday party can go a long way toward making your vendors loyal. Remember, agencies are comprised of people, and these people need to be motivated – just like employees. Moreover, the better the agency people understand your business, your pains, and your goals, the better they will perform for you.
Marketing Department Design
There are many ways to structure the marketing department. The design inevitably reflects a number of factors: the company size, industry, number of products or business, location, and goals.
The most common form of marketing organization is the functional department. Under this design, functional specialists head the various marketing groups. For example, Field Marketing manages events and demand generation. Product Marketing is responsible for go-to-market planning, product launches, content creation, and similar functions for the entire company. Marketing Communications handles graphic design, PR, and other communications functions for the marketing organization. Figure 1 illustrates what I consider to be a bare minimum marketing department for any organization of size. If a company conducts business primarily online, then Field Marketing may be replaced by Demand Generation or Digital Marketing.
An alternative structure is the geographic department. This design is common among companies that sell internationally. As illustrated in Figure 2, in the geographical organization, functional specialists head the various marketing activities within a particular region. In contrast to the functional organization, these specialists report to a country or regional manager rather than a head of marketing at the central headquarters. The underlying philosophy is that regional teams can tailor marketing efforts to suit the language and customs of their region. In addition, they are geographically closer to the salespeople and channel partners who actually do the work.
Figure 2: A department organized around general managers from three geographic regions
Many large companies adopt a hybrid department in which some functions are managed centrally and others are handled in the region. The centralized functions typically report to the head of marketing at headquarters, and the regional functions report either to the head of marketing or to the regional general manager. Dotted-line reporting, a relationship between an employee and a secondary supervisor who provides additional oversight and guidance to the employee, is common. For example, the head of European Field Marketing might report to the CMO but also maintain a dotted-line reporting relationship to the Vice President of European Operations, or vice versa. Figure 3 displays a standard hybrid organization.
Another way of categorizing department designs is to consider where decisions are made. Based on this model, an organization can be classified in one of three ways:
• Centralized—Marketing activities are directed from headquarters
• Decentralized—Marketing groups within the business units operate independently within the parameters of the overall corporate strategy
• Matrix—Marketing groups within the business units operate fairly autonomously yet have a dotted-line relationship to headquarters
Note how the functional, geographic, and hybrid department designs fit neatly into these three models. Deciding which model is right for your organization requires you to achieve the right balance between maintaining corporate standards and allowing the field to execute in the ways that work best for their markets, regardless of who reports to whom. Marketing departments that are too centralized frequently become out of touch, or even ineffective, in other regions. Conversely, overly decentralized organizations run the risk of diluting the brand or going off strategy.
One common element in all of the above organizing principles is the distribution of decision-making power – whether marketing functions are needed in region, at corporate headquarters, or some combination. There are cases where marketing is organized around products, brands, and customers:
• Product/Brand—Marketing groups are focused on product categories or brand groupings.
• Customer—Marketing groups are focused on relationships with key customers or consumer segments.
• Hybrid—Marketing teams are focused on both products and brands.
In the case of brand-oriented marketing, each brand group includes functional specialists. The thinking is to give each brand the specialized marketing support that it needs. The presumption is that the needs of a given brand are different from those of other brands within the company – marketing toothpaste versus potato chips in a large consumer packaged goods company, for example. This structure is common in a “house of brands” company; for example, CPG vendor Unilever, which sells Lipton tea, Hellman’s mayonnaise, and Dove soap, among hundreds of other products.
In contrast, in customer-oriented marketing, companies frequently take similar products to market in different ways based on customer type. An example is create marketing groups oriented toward consumers, small businesses, and enterprises. With different routes to market and varying cost structures, organizing the marketing efforts around buyers can be the most logical strategy.
Writing It Down
Establishing clearly defined roles and responsibilities is essential to maintaining a high performing marketing department. As simple as this precept seems, however, many organizations neglect to implement it. Moreover, as the department grows along with the organization, responsibilities may change or overlap. Functions that MarCom used to perform, for example, may be assumed by Branding and Advertising. Similarly, Channel Marketing may drive programs that previously were in Field Marketing’s wheelhouse.
What steps can a CMO take to ensure that the allocation of roles and responsibilities is clear to all of its members? The simplest and most effective strategy is to “put it in writing.” The particular format you employ is not that important, though a simple table with the group name shown on top, followed by a list of responsibilities, generally works well. If you are a new head of marketing, make sure to review the organizational model with your team. You may find the meeting interesting. It can involve a bit of negotiating and disagreement, but ultimately it will make your team more efficient and productive.
As you define these roles, make certain they reflect the department’s key marketing initiatives, such as product launches, press releases, user conferences, and campaign creation. It helps to define responsibilities, handoffs, and approvals. Who, for example, runs product launches? Does Product Marketing simply define go-to-market strategy and messaging, or do they coordinate the launch? Does Regional or Field Marketing require approval from MarCom or Branding for each piece they produce, or is having an agreed-upon style guide sufficient?
Figure 4 provides an example from one of my previous stints as VP of Marketing. One conflict that emerged in this arrangement involved social media. We resolved this conflict by incorporating social media management to the PR director’s role while making Product Marketing responsible for the content.
Working with Other Departments
Many people are simply ignorant of the inner workings of Marketing, like the VP of Sales who asked me to compliment the PR team for the great-looking billboard he saw in the airport. Because Marketing departments vary from company to company, the best strategy is to circulate the roles and responsibilities in Figure 4 as widely as possible.
Friction sometimes emerges between groups in different departments who feel they should be responsible for certain functions. Three common examples are: (1) telemarketing versus inside sales, (2) Web design versus development, and (3) channel sales versus channel marketing. The point of contention is usually who “owns” talking to customers, building or updating the website, and who communicates with channel partners, respectively.
The easiest way to clear up any tension between the telemarketing team (in Marketing) and the inside sales team (in Sales) is to create an agreement with the head of sales concerning the MQL criteria and when and to whom a MQL is handed over to become a SAL (This is the “handoff” covered in Chapter 11.). Likewise, Telemarketing will want an agreement back from Sales on how soon they will be following up the lead.
Another common source of conflict involves who should own the corporate website: Marketing or IT. If your organization’s business is your Web site, then Product Management and Engineering can become involved as well. One effective method to defuse these conflicts is to clearly define who is responsible for identity and content and who is responsible for functionality. Also, in cases where IT is your only counterpart, a clear SLA needs to be in place for time-sensitive Web content like press releases and new product content related to launches.
One final example involves the channel program. Sales may want to run the entire program, while Marketing probably wants to control how marketing dollars are spent.
These scenarios represent only a few common sources of interdepartmental disputes. There may be other conflicts as well. Whatever the specifics, the preferred strategy is to clear them up before they become points of friction within your organization.
The centers of excellence mentioned in the previous section can also help cooperation among groups from different departments. Forming these teams will help to foster innovation, cooperation, and participation across the organization.
Funny enough, many CMOs are really good at marketing their brand, company, or product, but they are really bad at marketing their departments, their people, and themselves. “Marketing” Marketing is very important. Creating dashboards, circulating an internal newsletter, maintaining an internal marketing blog, and ensuring that company HQ and branch offices get signage for important product launches are just a few strategies for promoting the marketing function.
“Marketing” Marketing is critical for the company to understand what Marketing does and how it contributes to the business. It can also be a lot of fun. So, don’t blanche at the idea, or think of it as blatant self-promotion. Employees are just like consumers – you have to hit them over the head with the message. Don’t just assume they know what’s going on, especially outside HQ. Finally, make sure to call out the marketing team members who were responsible for a successful campaign. You always look good when you praise your team, and your employees will appreciate it.
- The CMO Manifesto, John Ellet, 2012